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学术讲座: Taste Cells of the Gut and Metabolic Sensors of the Tongue
作者: 科研业务处 ║ 日期: 2015/05/26 

Speaker: Prof. Robert F. Margolskee
     Monell Chemical Senses Center
Time:  10:30am – 11:30am
Date:  June 2 (Tue), 2015
Venue:  心理所南楼6层会议室
Abstract: 
We have found that many of the receptors and downstream signalling elements involved in taste detection and transduction are expressed also in intestinal hormone producing (endocrine) cells where they underlie key chemosensory functions of the gut. In one example of gastrointestinal chemosensation it is known that glucose given orally, but not systemically, induces secretion of the “incretin” hormone GLP-1 (glucagon like peptide-1), which in turn regulates insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. We have found that intestinal endocrine cells express sweet taste receptors, the taste G-protein gustducin, and several other taste transduction elements. Knockout mice lacking gustducin or the sweet taste receptor subunit T1R3 have deficiencies in secretion of GLP-1 and in the regulation of plasma levels of insulin and glucose. In another example of gastrointestinal chemosensation we have found that endocrine cells of the pancreas express multiple taste proteins that are involved in regulating insulin release. Furthermore, taste cells of the oral cavity express GLP-1, other “gut” hormones and the insulin receptor. Recently, we identified intestinal-type glucose transporters and pancreatic-type ATP-gated K+ channels (K-ATP metabolic sensors) as being present in taste cells and potentially functioning in the detection of the sweet taste of sugars. Most recently, we have found that the intestinal brush border disaccharidases maltase glucoamylase and sucrase-isomaltase are expressed in T1R3+ taste cells. Further, we found that two disaccharidase inhibitors significantly reduced gustatory nerve responses to sucrose and maltose, but not to the monosaccharides glucose and fructose or the noncaloric sweeteners. We propose that these enzymes act in concert with salivary amylase to generate free glucose from sucrose, maltose and starch that can activate the T1R3-independent sugar detection pathway. In sum our studies point out similarities in gustation and gut chemosensation and indicate the importance of “taste cells of the gut” and “metabolic sensors of the tongue” in coordinating the body’s hormone responses to regulate glucose homeostasis.

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