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健康与遗传心理学研究室学术报告
作者: 健康与遗传心理学研究室 ║ 日期: 2014/09/10 

  为了增进实验室的学术交流,实验室定期举办沙龙。报告以研究组为单位,报告人不限,报告主题自选。欢迎所有感兴趣的老师和同学参加!

  时间:隔周一中午13:30-14:30 

  地点:南楼三层会议室

日  期 课题组 报告人 题    目 备 注
3月31日 陈楚侨 王 亚 Is there really impairment in patients with schizohrenia to remember for the future actions? Evidence from a large cohort of first-episode schizophrenia  
4月14日 高文斌  谢东杰 青少年自我控制与父母教养方式的关系研究  
4月28日 韩布新  张玉静 长寿心理商数的定义、影响因素及其测量  
5月12日 金 锋 李 薇 帕金森症患者的肠道菌群状况分析  
5月26日 罗 非 孙亚斌 Facial reactions to situations of other's real-life pain  
6月9日 林文娟 王玮文 社会应激对青少期动物行为和神经发育的影响  
6月23日 李 娟 郑志伟 Electrophysiological evidence for the effects of unitization on associative recognition memory in older adults  
7月7日 隋 南 沈 芳 Varied behavioral responses induced by morphine in tree shrew: probing the valid paradigms for potential addicted consequences  
7月21日 王 晶  杜 阳 rSNPBase: a database for regulatory SNPs analysis  
9月1日 尹文刚 闫冠男 执行功能的神经心理学研究  
9月15日 张建新 陈 杰  遗传和环境对青少年特质焦虑的影响   
9月29日 青年创新团队      
10月13日 社会心理行为调查中心      
10月27日 心理健康促进中心       

时间:2014年9月15日周一13:30-14:30
地点:心理所南楼三层会议室
报告人:陈杰 助理研究员(张建新研究组)
报告题目:遗传和环境对青少年特质焦虑的影响
报告摘要:
  
焦虑起源于青春期。研究青少年焦虑发生的机制有利于预防和治疗焦虑。本研究结合数量遗传学和分子遗传学的方法考察遗传和环境对青少年特质焦虑的影响。首先采用双生子设计发现青少年焦虑的遗传度为50%。在此基础上,进一步揭示了脑源性神经影响因子(BDNF)基因多态性位点(BDNF Val66Met)和环境(压力生活事件、母亲温暖及讲道理)的交互作用对青少年焦虑的影响。研究发现,和Met/Met 基因型的个体相比,在携带有Val 等位基因的个体中,压力生活事件对焦虑的正影响更强,同时母亲温暖及讲道理对焦虑的负影响也更强。我们的发现可以用差异感受性(differential-susceptibility) 模型解释。

时间:2014年9月1日周一13:30-14:30
地点:心理所南楼三层会议室
报告人:闫冠男 博士三年级(尹文刚研究组)
报告题目:执行功能的神经心理学研究
报告摘要:
  执行功能(Executive Functions,简称EF)是当前心理学研究中的一个热点,也是对人的一生发展意义重大的一种能力。总的来说,执行功能常常被看作主要是由前额叶调节的一种复杂的认知功能,是指个体的许多认知加工过程的协同操作:是在实现某一特定目标时,个体所使用的灵活而优化的认知和神经机制,包括计划、工作记忆、抑制控制、定势转移或心理灵活性以及动作产生和监控等一系列功能。对于执行功能的研究最早开始于英国的一些学者对额叶损伤患者的研究。因此,本报告将从神经心理学的角度出发,介绍执行功能的相关脑结构和认知成分,以及相应的神经心理测验(如STROOP色词测验,连线测验,河内塔等)。最后,报告将简单介绍一些常见的执行功能相关疾病,包括精神疾病、神经系统疾病以及儿童期间的疾病。

时间:2014年7月21日周一13:30-14:30
地点:心理所南楼三层会议室
报告人:杜阳 博一(王晶研究组)
报告题目:rSNPBase: a database for regulatory SNPs analysis
报告摘要
Similar to the effect of SNPs on protein structure andfunction, the impact of SNPs on gene regulation hasbeen considered for decades and widely studied. Some recent findings imply an importantrole for regulatory SNPs (rSNPs) in the development of complex diseases and other complex biologicalprocesses.To make it convenient for researchers studying the molecular mechanisms of complex diseases, we build the database rSNPBase, which is freely available at http://rsnp.psych.ac.cn/, to provide curated rSNPs that analyses the regulatory features of all SNPs in the human genome. To improve reliability, rSNPBase annotated SNPs with reference to experimentally supported regulatory elements other than predicted data. rSNPBase focuses on rSNPs involved in a wide range of regulation types, including proximal and distal transcriptional regulation and post-transcriptional regulation. In summary, rSNPBase is a database that provides reliable, comprehensive, and user-friendly regulatory annotations on rSNPs. It will assist researchers in selecting candidate SNPs for further genetic studies (especially for QTL studies), identifying causal variants of certain phenotypes, and exploring in-depth molecular mechanisms. Examples will be present especially for this salon about how we use rSNPBase in studying the molecular mechanisms of psychiatric diseases.

  单核苷酸多态性位点(SNP)可以影响蛋白质的结构和功能,同样也可以影响基因的表达调控。人们对于SNP的调控功能已经展开了大量的研究。近年来对于复杂疾病遗传学研究表明,具有调控功能的SNPs (rSNP) 可能在疾病的发生发展的过程中起着重要的作用。为了便于研究者对复杂疾病的遗传学机制的研究,我们构建了rSNPBase数据库(rSNPBase可以通过http://rsnp.psych.ac.cn/免费访问)。rSNPBase在全基因组范围内分析SNP与调控元件之间的关系,为了提高数据库的可靠性,rSNPBase所整合的调控元件信息都具有实验数据支持。另外,rSNPBase囊括了大部分调控元件类型,包括近端调控元件、远端调控元件和转录后调控元件。总而言之,rSNPBase 数据库提供了对rSNP更加可靠、全面和用户友好的注解,它将有助于研究者筛选候选SNPs进行进一步的遗传学研究(尤其是数量性状座位研究),发现致病SNP,探索复杂疾病的可能的分子机制。本次沙龙将举例介绍该工具在精神疾患分子机制研究中的具体应用方式。

时间:2014年7月7日周一13:30-14:30
地点:心理所南楼三层会议室
报告人:沈芳 博士后 (隋南研究组)
报告题目:Varied behavioral responses induced by morphine in tree shrew: probing the valid paradigms for potential addicted consequences
报告摘要:
Tree shrews are one of the closest relatives of primates, although they are increasingly used as models in the research of vision, social stress and neurological/psychiatric diseases, relatively little is known about using tree shrews for studying the addiction-related behaviors. In this study, we investigated whether tree shrews can be used as a new animal model to explore the addictive memory induced by morphine. Firstly, to explore the psychoactive effect of morphine on tree shrews’ behavior, we examined the number of jumps and shuttle between the cage and nest boxpost-injection of three doses of morphine, which were considered as the vertical and horizontal locomotor activity indices respectively. Then, using the conditioned place preference/aversion (CPP/CPA) paradigm, we found morphine-conditioned tree shrews exhibited place preference and their locomotor activities were increased in morphine-paired chamber on the test day. In addition, naloxone-precipitate withdrawal induced place aversion in the chronic morphine-dependent tree shrews. Furthermore, we investigated the more complex operant behavior associated with addictive drugs using self-administration paradigm in tree shrews. Our results showed that the break point of drinking morphine mixed with sucrose was significantly increased versus the baseline on the 1st, 7th and 14th day after abstinence. Additionally, in the intravenous morphine self-administration experiment, tree shrews conditioned with morphine responded on the active lever significantly more frequently than on the inactive lever at the end of the acquisition. For the first time, our study demonstrated that the tree shrew might be a potential candidate for studying the addictive behavior induced by morphine. 

时间:2014年6月23日周一13:30-14:30
地点:心理所南楼三层会议室
报告人:郑志伟 博士二年级 (李娟研究组)
报告题目:Electrophysiological evidence for the effects of unitization on associative recognition memory in older adults
报告摘要: 
Normal aging is associated with greater declines in associative memory relative to item memory, which may result from impaired recollection. It has been demonstrated recently that familiarity may also contribute to associative recognition when stimuli are perceived as a ‘unitized’ representation. Owing to an understanding that familiarity is relatively preserved in older adults, we explored whether aging-related associative memory deficits could be attenuated when encoded associations were unitized. Retrieval processes associated with familiarity and recollection were measured using event-related potentials (ERPs). In an associative recognition task, 25 young and 24 older adults studied Chinese language two-character compound words and unrelated word pairs. Subsequently, participants were asked to decide whether a presented character pair was intact, rearranged, or new relative to the studied character pairs while electroencephalograms (EEGs) were recorded. Behavioral results showed that age differences were smaller for associative recognition of compound words than for unrelated word pairs. Electrophysiological results indicated that only compounds evoked early frontal old/new effect, and left parietal old/new effect is greater for compounds than for unrelated word pairs in older adults. Mid-frontal, left parietal, and late right frontal old/new effects for compound words, but not for unrelated word pairs, showed no age differences. These findings suggest that unitization could alleviate age-related associative deficits through enhanced familiarity and recollection-based retrieval processes during associative recognition in older adults.

时间:2014年6月9日周一13:30-14:30
点:心理所南楼三层会议室
报告人:王玮文 副研究员(林文娟研究组)
报告题目:社会应激对青少期动物行为和神经发育的影响
报告摘要:
    社会应激是一种显著而有效的,且与青少期特别相关的应激源。一方面,青少期是个体社会心理最活跃和迫切的阶段。与其它阶段相比这一阶段的社会活动显著增加,与此同时遭遇负性社会事件的风险也明显增加。另一方面,青少期阶段前额叶皮质及皮层下边缘脑区的结构和功能发生明显变化,这些部位在社会行为,情绪和认知功能调节中发挥关键性作用。青少期负性社会经历与成年期多种精神疾病患病风险增加密切相关,但是社会应激如何影响青少期心理和神经发育及其与特定心理病理改变间的关系并不清楚。脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)是参与神经发育和可塑性调节的重要介导因子,且与情绪和认知密切相关。采用小鼠“居留者-入侵者”社会挫败应激模型,我们系统比较了青少期早期,青少期晚期和成年期社会应激对社会行为和认知功能发展的影响特征,饲养环境和抗抑郁药物干预的影响以及前额叶-边缘系统BDNF及其表观遗传学修饰的介导作用。研究发现:(1)青少期早期是社会应激长期影响社交行为和前额叶皮质执行功能的关键期;(2)社会应激对不同发育阶段小鼠BDNFmRNA和蛋白表达水平的影响具有脑区特异性;(3)生活环境和抗抑郁药物显著影响青少期早期社会应激诱导的行为和BDNF表达改变,但其影响特征存在差异;(4)BDNF表观遗传修饰在社会应激诱发的行为和海马神经可塑性改变中发挥重要作用。这些提示前额叶-边缘系统BDNF及其表观遗传修饰可能参与社会应激对青少期心理和神经发育的影响,以及环境因素和药物干预的治疗作用。

时间:2014年5月26日周一13:30-14:30
地点:心理所南楼三层会议室
报告人:孙亚斌 博士一年级(罗非研究组)
报告题目:Facial reactions to situations of other's real-life pain
报告摘要:
Empathy, a basic social cognitive function, plays a vital role in everyone's daily life. A growing body of research reveals that people mimic the emotional facial expression in the context of emotional empathy, e.g., facial expression of anger and happiness elicit corresponding frowns and smiles. There is a dearth of studies examining the facial behaviors in empathy for pain, however. The present study focused on the expression changes as empathic reaction towards situations of other's real-life pain. Highly ecological validity video clips were prerecorded depicting people being injected (n=10, 4 males). The control video clips were recorded from additional 10 subjects showing neutral expressions with arms being wiped by a Q-tip. Thirty-four graduate and undergraduate subjects (males 11, age 20.9±2.2) participated in this experiment. Facial electromyography (EMG), electrodermal activity (EDA) and pulse rate were recorded to assess the emotional responses elicited by visual stimuli. Subjective ratings of pain intensity and unpleasantness as well as interpersonal reactivity index (IRI) were measured after the termination of video stimuli. The results showed that, compared to the neutral videos, viewing pain videos elicited more corrugator activity and more zygomaticus activity as well. The activities of these facial muscles have consistently been attributed to the facial expression of pain. Furthermore, corrugators activity correlated positively to scores of empathic concern subscale of IRI, while zygomaticus activity correlated negatively to IRI scores. These results suggest that observing others in pain may lead to painful facial expression of the observer, and people with higher trait empathy are more facially reactive to others’ suffering.

时间:2014年5月12日周一13:30-14:30
地点:心理所南楼三层会议室
报告人:李薇 博士三年级(金锋研究组)
报告题目:帕金森症患者的肠道菌群状况分析

报告摘要:
  
PD是常见的中老年神经退行性病变之一,早期发现和诊断对控制该病的进程具有重要意义。临床研究发现,PD患者常常伴随着消化道的慢性炎症、长期便秘等非运动症状,这些都提示PD可能肠道菌群失调有关。肠道的健康状况及肠道菌群特征可能成为早期筛查PD的一个风险标志。近年来,有研究表明肠道共生微生物可以显著改善肠道易激的状态,并通过脑-肠轴调节大脑的多巴胺系统,从而可能成为预防和治疗PD的有效方法。本研究拟通过对PD患者的饮食习惯、认知能力、心理特征进行问卷调查,并针对其肠道菌群特征进行分析,试图从肠道菌群和肠脑的角度探讨PD的发病原因,以及使用安全的益生菌对PD患者进行生物学干预的可行性。

时间:2014年4月28日周一13:30-14:30
地点:心理所南楼三层会议室
报告人:张玉静 博士一年级(韩布新研究组)
报告题目:长寿心理商数的定义、影响因素及其测量

报告摘要:
  长寿研究表明成功的老龄化和存活率差异是生物、社会、心理因素共同作用的结果,其中个体心理行为因素对寿命的影响作用超过60%。报告首先回顾了影响长寿的行为和心理因素(包括情绪、人格、健康行为、应对机制等)、生物学因素(包括遗传、性别、种族和生理因素)、社会因素、以及心理行为因素与生物学因素的交互作用。这些研究通常将生存时间作为长寿指标,采用纵向追踪的方法探讨一个或几个因素对长寿的作用,但却没有长寿心理影响因素的整合模型研究。其次,为了能够客观、量化评估与表述,并进一步预测个体受心理因素影响的长寿水平,我们提出了长寿心理商数(LPQ)的概念并对其进行操作化定义。最后,报告讨论了在长寿老人个体层面上评估长寿心理商数(寿商),如何确定一套简便、科学、可靠的关键指标体系,以及测量时要遵循的原则和注意事项。对寿商进行评估和测量将会丰富和完善长寿界定的科学内涵和人文传统,并为延年益寿和健康老龄化的目标提供可参考的量化指标和实现途径。

时间:2014年4月14日周一13:30-14:30
地点:心理所南楼三层会议室
报告人:谢东杰 硕士三年级(高文斌研究组)
报告题目:青少年自我控制与父母教养方式的关系研究

报告摘要
  与自我控制相关的领域几乎囊括了人类行为的方方面面,对于处于特定发展阶段的青少年来说,自我控制缺陷会导致很多问题行为,例如物质滥用及暴力行为、攻击行为等。除了这些不良行为,自我控制和学业成就存在高度相关。可见,研究自我控制是解决当前青少年发展问题的关键环节。以往研究表明,应该从冲动系统和控制系统两个方面来评估自我控制。因此,我们在国外已有研究的基础上,以分层整群抽样的方式在六个省份的小学、中学、大学选取了5400多名学生进行问卷调查,进而修订适合从冲动系统和控制系统两方面评估我国青少年自我控制的量表;并通过进一步分析年龄、性别等青少年自身特征以及亲子关系、家庭经济状况、父母文化程度等家庭因素对青少年自我控制的影响,以描述我国青少年自我控制双系统的发展现状;最后,从男/女生两方面分析父/母亲教养方式对青少年自我控制的影响。

时间:2014年3月31日周一13:30-14:30
地点:心理所南楼三层会议室
报告人:王亚副研究员(陈楚侨研究组)
报告题目:Is there really impairment in patients with schizohrenia to remember for the future actions? 
                Evidence from a large cohort of first-episode schizophrenia

报告摘要:
Backgrounds: Prospective memory (PM), the ability to remember to carry out intended action in the future, is a complex cognitive function. Empirical evidence suggests that PM deficits exist in chronic schizophrenia. However, previous PM studies in first-episode schizophrenia showed inconsistent results as to whether PM deficits exist independently from other neuropsychological deficits, and were limited to small inpatient samples. We aimed to clarify the nature and extent of PM deficits, using a large first-episode sample.
Methods: Participants were 91 clinically stable outpatients with first-episode schizophrenia and 83 healthy individuals. PM was assessed by both the subjective self-reported checklist and a laboratory-based task capturing time-, event-, and activity-based PM. A set of battery assessing verbal, visuo-spatial, and working memory, and executive functions was also administered to all the participants. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was conducted to examine group difference in PM and to control from other neuropsychological functions. Stepwise linear regression was used to identify neuropsychological functions that predict PM performance in first-episode patients.
Results: Patients with first-episode schizophrenia were impaired in both time- and event-based PM but not activity-based PM, after controlling for IQ and other neuropsychological deficits. Regression modeling suggested that cognitive flexibility predicts time- and event-based PM; working memory predicts event-based PM; whereas age predicts activity-based PM.
Conclusion: Our results convincingly suggest that time- and event-based PM deficits in first-episode schizophrenia are severe and not attributable to other neuropsychological deficits. PM, as a primary deficit, may constitute a neuropsychological marker of schizophrenia.
Keywords: prospective memory; schizophrenia; first-episode

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