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2013年认知与发展心理学论坛
作者: 认知与发展心理学研究室 ║ 日期: 2013/12/04 

  为了增进研究室各研究组之间的学术及人文交流,认知与发展研究室定期举办“认知与发展心理学论坛”,报告以研究组为单位,报告人不限,报告主题自选。时间基本固定为周二中午13:30-14:30,地点在东楼201教室,报告时间为40-45分钟。欢迎所有感兴趣的老师和同学参加!

序号 日 期 研究组 报告题目及摘要 报告人
1 4月9日 朱廷劭

用户移动设备使用行为及心理研究(特殊情况,报告时间为10:00-11:00

朱廷劭
2 4月16日 施建农 超常儿童的心理发展与教育 施建农 
3 4月23日 蒋 毅 The Ebbinghausillusion in the absence of awareness 陈丽红
4 5月14日 刘 勋 The Electrophysiological Dynamics Reveal the Independent Processing of Stimulus-Stimulus and Stimulus-Response Conflicts 李 琦
5 5月21日 毕鸿燕 大细胞通路功能与汉语阅读的关系 钱 怡 
6 5月28日 朱莉琪 汉语早期习得动词的语义特性及其对词汇加工的影响 陈永香
7 6月4日 傅小兰 Different time course for natural scene categorization of color photographs and line-drawings: Evidence from event-related potentials 付秋芳 
8 6月18日 周 雯

(因所内会议,报告地点临时调整为南楼6层会议室)
Olfactory temporal resolution in humans

张肖萌 
9 6月25日 张清芳 Phonological encoding unit of Chinese speech production 岳 源
10 7月2日 李兴珊 Word segmentation of overlapping ambiguous strings during Chinese reading 马国杰
11 9月24日 黄昌兵

What is the rationale and what weaken the effect of group decision?
群体决策的机制是什么?什么降低了群体决策的效果?

黄昌兵
张佩媛 

12 10月15日 鲍 敏

racking contrast threshold with a ramp method
用ramp方法测量对比度阈值

董 雪 
13 10月29日 王 亮

Does the size of the spatial reference mediate the relationship between ego- and allo-centric representations?
空间参照物的大小是否调节自我参照和客体参照间的关系?

王 琳
14 11月26日 李 甦

文字视觉加工专门化的早期发展
——基于N170的主要发现

李 甦
15 12月10日 左西年 Functional homogeneity in the human cortex: regional variation, morphological association and functional covariance network 姜黎黎
16 12月17日 张 弢 Neural mechanism of visual motion adaptation in primate visual cortex 匡神兵

*报告安排如需调整请提前告知,报告信息请最迟于报告前一周的周一将发到fanjq@psych.ac.cn。        

时间:12月17日(周二)下午13:30-14:30
地点:东楼201教室
报告人:匡神兵助理研究员(张弢研究组)
报告题目:Neural mechanism of visual motion adaptation in primate visual cortex
报告摘要:
Visual adaptation is a change over time in the responsiveness of the visual system to a constant stimulus. It is one form of brain plasticity that has been extensively utilized as a tool to probe brain functions. However, the neuronal mechanisms underlying adaptation, especially in the visual motion system, remains poorly understood. One of the major challenges in addressing these questions is, the reciprocal anatomical connections among visual areas make it difficult to determine the exact origin of motion adaptation. Here we designed a couple of motion direction discrimination tasks in which we separately inactivated the lower visual area V1 and the higher middle temporal visual area (MT). Human observers were asked to judge the perceived direction of random dot kinetogram (RDK, testing phase) after a prolonged viewing of either leftward or rightward motion adaptor (adapting phase). The adaptor was either a cloud of dots moving in an annulus (with a gap in the center, Filling-in trials) or two clouds of spatially overlapped dots (black and white) in the center which were locally paired and moving in the opposite directions (Opponency trials). In the filling-in trials V1 neurons (whose receptive fields were in the center) was inactive due to the absence of retinal motion while MT neurons were still active because of global filling-in mechanism. In contrast, in the opponency trials area MT was selectively inactivated by mutual inhibitions of opposing directions while V1 was unaffected. These two types of trials were randomly interleaved within the same participant, allowing us to directly compare the relative contributions of either visual stage in motion adaptation. Our results revealed that observers were more likely to perceive the RDK as moving to rightward following adaptation to a leftward motion, and vice versa. We found that these motion aftereffects were present in the filling-in trials but not in the opponency trials within each participant. Our results indicated that motion adaptation occurs mostly at the higher motion stage MT while the contributions from lower area V1 are minimal if not totally absent.

时间:12月10日(周二)下午13:30-14:30
地点: 东楼201教室
报告人:姜黎黎助理研究员(左西年研究组)
报告题目:Functional homogeneity in the human cortex: regional variation, morphological association and functional covariance network.
报告摘要:
Local functional homogeneity of the human cortex indicates the boundaries between functionally heterogeneous regions and varies remarkably across the cortical mantle. It is unclear whether these variations have the neurobiological and structural basis. We employed structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans from 402 healthy subjects across the lifespan (8 – 85 years) and computed the vertex-wise regional homogeneity of low-frequency fluctuations (2dReHo) and five measures of cortical morphology measures. We then used these metrics to examine regional variation, morphological association and functional covariance network of 2dReHo. Within the ventral visual stream, increases of 2dReHo reflect reduced complexity of information processing or hierarchies of functional organization. The individual differences in 2dReHo are associated with those of cortical morphology and their whole-brain inter-regional covariation is organized into a complex network with five biologically meaningful and hierarchically organized large-scale modules. Network centrality analyses of this functional covariance network detect hubs of both primary sensory and high-order association areas. These observations suggest that local functional homogeneity has biological relevance that is likely determined by structural, developmental and neurocognitive factors and should serve as a biomarker to investigate the brain-behavior associations and various neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders.

时间:11月26日(周二)下午13:30-14:30
地点: 东楼201教室
报告人:李甦副研究员(社会心理行为调查中心)
报告题目:文字视觉加工专门化的早期发展——基于N170的主要发现
报告摘要:
成熟阅读者能够快速、自动化地加工文字并进行阅读得益于大脑对视觉文字的专门化加工。文字视觉专门化加工的出现与发展是近年大脑功能专门化领域中的重要研究课题。本报告将围绕我们近期一系列成人及儿童电生理研究的主要发现,探讨在文字自然习得过程中,随儿童年龄、大脑成熟及阅读能力等的变化,文字视觉专门化加工所表现出的特点。此外,报告还将探讨文字加工专门化与面孔加工专门化在发展中的关系。

时间:10月29日(周二)下午13:30-14:30
地点: 东楼201教室
报告人:王琳同学(王亮研究组)
报告题目:Does the size of the spatial reference mediate the relationship between ego- and allo-centric representations?
     空间参照物的大小是否调节自我参照和客体参照间的关系?
报告摘要:
Here we investigated whether the size of the reference mediate the relationship between ego- and allo-centric representations in allocentric perception. We measured reaction time of subjects in a position discrimination task in which the behavioral response relied on the target’s allocentric location, independent of its egocentric position. We used two conditions of stimulus location: the compatible condition-allocentric left and egocentric left or allocentric right and egocentric right; the incompatible condition-allocentric left and egocentric right or allocentric right and egocentric left. Task1 instructed subjects to judge the small dot’s position with respect to an adjacent big dot, whereas task2 instructed subjects to judge the big dot’s position with respect to the small one. We found that egocentric representation showed a significant effect on allocentric perception in both task1 and task2. The result indicated that the size of the spatial reference did not change the relationship between ego- and allocentric representations.
本研究考察是否参照物的大小影响了自我参照和客体参照的关系。任务设置两种条件,自我参照和客体参照一致,自我参照和客体参照不一致,要求个体依靠客体参照而忽略自我参照完成空间位置判断,测量手动反应时。任务一以大点做参照物,判断小点的位置,任务二以小点做参照物,判断大点的位置。研究发现,任务一和任务二,两种坐标系不一致比两种坐标系一致增加了对目标点进行客体参照判断的反应时。研究结果表明客体参照物的大小不能调节自我参照和客体参照的关系。

时间:10月15日(周二)下午13:30-14:30
地点: 东楼201教室
报告人:董雪同学(鲍敏研究组)
题目:Tracking contrast threshold with a ramp method
用ramp方法测量对比度阈值
报告摘要:
Contrast sensitivity to a pattern reduces dramatically after prolonged viewing a similar pattern with high contrast. The time course of this effect reflects the dynamic of contrast adaptation. Various methods have been adopted to measure the time course of buildup and decay of contrast adaptation, among which one-down-one-up staircase is mostly often used. However, each response in a staircase only indicates whether the observer’s percept is above or below the last presented contrast, thus inevitably leading to inaccurate measurement of threshold especially when adaptation effect changes quickly. To overcome this disadvantage, we invented a novel technique, ramp method, to measure the dynamic contrast threshold more efficiently and accurately. By replicating a previous experiment on the time course of contrast adaptation but with this new method, the present study suggests that the ramp method can be a useful technique for tracking the dynamic of contrast adaptation.
对比度适应是指在观看高对比度的适应刺激一段时间后,再观看与适应刺激相似的低对比度刺激时,对比度的敏感性会显著下降,对比度阈限提高。在测量对比度适应过程中和结束后阈限如何随时间变化的相关研究中,阶梯法是最常用的方法,即根据被试对当前对比度的测试刺激的反应(可见或不可见),决定下一个测试刺激对比度大小(提高或降低对比度),从而追踪被试对比度阈值随时间的变化。但是阶梯法存在一定缺陷,被试每次判断只能反映当前其对比度阈限相对测试的对比度是高还是低,无法反映阈限精确值。为克服阶梯法的不足,本研究中使用了一种新方法——ramp方法,能够更精确的测量对比度阈值的大小。通过使用ramp方法对已有研究结果进行重复,本研究证明了ramp方法能够有效追踪对比度适应后阈值是如何随时间变化的。

时间:4月9日(周二)上午10:00-11:00(特殊情况,时间调整至上午)
地点:东楼201教室
报告人:朱廷劭 研究员(朱廷劭研究组)
报告题目:用户移动设备使用行为及心理研究
报告摘要:  
随着移动设备的广泛使用,开展用户移动设备使用行为分析并进而研究其心理特征具有现实的意义,而目前关于移动行为及心理的研究更多地依赖于量表。我们提出利用分析用户的移动设备使用行为,建立其心理预测模型,并根据预测结果提供针对性的个性化服务。在本次报告中,将介绍我们在移动设备使用行为分析方面做的工作,已经开发的相关系统,以及我们对后续工作的思考。

时间:4月16日(周二)下午13:30-14:30
地点:东楼201教室
报告人:施建农 研究员(施建农研究组)
报告题目:超常儿童的心理发展与教育
报告摘要:
中国超常儿童研究自1978年以来,已经走过了35个年头。现在早期的超常儿童已经长大成人。在过去的35年中,我国的心理学研究人员和教育工作者究竟做了什么?这些早期的超常儿童现在怎么样了?本次讲座将就超常儿童的心理发展与教育问题展开讨论。

时间:4月23日(周二)下午13:30-14:30
地点:东楼201教室
报告人:陈丽红 同学(蒋毅研究组)
报告题目:The Ebbinghausillusion in the absence of awareness
报告摘要:  
Using the interocular suppression paradigm, we rendered the central circle of the Ebbinghaus figure invisible at the beginning of each trialwhile leaving the surrounding inducers intact. We found that the central circle broke from suppression sooner when surrounded by smaller relative to larger inducers, suggesting thatits perceived size wassubconsciouslyprocessed. Moreover, the strength of the Ebbinghaus illusion, as indexed by the illusory size change of the central circle, predicted the suppression time difference between these conditions across participants. The effectdisappeared when the central circle wasreplacedwith an irregular shapeor when it was monocularly embedded in thesuppression noise, thus ruling out the possibility of response biases.Our results thus provide clear evidence that the Ebbinghaus illusion existed below awareness, andshed new light on the interconnectionsbetween conscious and subconscious visual processings.

时间:5月14日(周二)下午13:30-14:30
地点:东楼201教室
报告人:李琦 助理研究员(刘勋研究组)
报告题目:The Electrophysiological Dynamics Reveal the Independent Processing of Stimulus-Stimulus and Stimulus-Response Conflicts
报告摘要:  
Many behavioral and neuroimaging studies have recently investigated the conflict-control mechanisms and underlying neural substrates. However, whether there exist independent networks that operate on different types of conflicts is still in dispute. In a previous study, we found that behavioral measures (i.e. reaction time –RT) of conflict resolution were additive for conflicts rising from stimulus-stimulus (S-S) and stimulus-response (S-R) ensembles, indicating relative independence of processing for S-S and S-R conflicts. In current study, we conducted two ERP experiments, factorially-combining S-S and S-R conflicts. We examined the following evidences supporting the independence of S-S and S-R conflict processing. First, RT data again showed that conflict resolution was additive when there existed both S-S and S-R conflicts. Second, ERP results showed that single S-S conflict, single S-R conflict, and double-conflict conditions all elicited fronto-central N2 components; and the N2 amplitudes also indicated an addictive effect of S-S and S-R conflicts. Third, time-frequency analysis revealed that processing of single S-S conflict, single S-R conflict, and double-conflict mainly modulated theta power (4-8 Hz) at fronto-central sites; and the amplitude of theta power again tracked the patterns of RT and N2 amplitude, showing an additive effect. In summary, these findings provided additional support for independent S-S and S-R conflict monitoring and/or control modules in human brain.
Key words: stimulus-stimulus conflict; stimulus-response conflict; double conflict; Stroop; Simon

时间:5月21日(周二)下午13:30-14:30
地点:东楼201教室
报告人:钱怡 同学(毕鸿燕研究组)
报告题目:大细胞通路功能与汉语阅读的关系
报告摘要:  
拼音文字的研究表明,大细胞通路的功能与阅读技能存在密切的关系。研究发现发展性阅读障碍者的大细胞功能弱于正常阅读者。关于正常被试的研究也发现,大细胞通路的功能与阅读速度、正字法加工技能、语音意识等存在相关。然而,汉语有其特异性,没有明确的形音对应规则,对正字法加工的要求更高,汉语阅读需要更多的视觉分析。那么,汉语中,大细胞通路功能与阅读技能的关系是不是与拼音文字中存在差异,表现出独有的特点呢?本研究采用fMRI技术和一致性运动探测任务,考察了正常成人阅读者的大细胞通路的功能活动,并且从行为上考察了其正字法加工、语音意识、快速命名、阅读流畅性、准确性、阅读理解等能力。结果表明,一致性运动任务下MT/V5区的激活程度与快速命名、流畅性、准确性存在显著相关,后顶叶皮层的激活程度与快速命名和正字法加工相关,而语音意识并不与大细胞通路脑区的功能相关,体现了汉语阅读的特异性。

时间:5月28日(周二)下午13:30-14:30
地点:东楼201教室
报告人:陈永香 同学(朱莉琪 研究组)
报告题目:汉语早期习得动词的语义特性及其对词汇加工的影响
报告摘要:  
汉语和英语早期动词习得存在很大的差异。在英语中,儿童早期习得的动词比例比名词比例小很多,存在典型的“名词优势”现象;而汉语儿童早期习得动词的比例较高,“名词优势”较弱。此外,英语儿童早期词汇中存在很多语义模糊的“轻动词”(light verb),而汉语儿童早期词汇中似乎有更多具体的动词,如“打”和“抱”等。那么,汉语早期动词在语义上具有哪些特性?这些语义特性是否/如何影响动词习得的顺序(即习得年龄)?早期动词的语义特性和习得年龄是否/如何影响儿童以及成人的词汇加工过程?本报告主要围绕以上问题展开。

时间:6月4日(周二)下午13:30-14:30
地点:东楼201教室
报告人:付秋芳 副研究员(傅小兰 研究组)
报告题目:Different time course for natural scene categorization of color photographs and line-drawings: Evidence from event-related potentials
Humans have remarkable ability to categorize natural scenes quickly and accurately. It is a big challenge to explain how the rapid natural scene categorization takes place in human brain. Recently, an fMRI study found that color photographs and line-drawings of natural scene categories generated similar neural activation. Here, we investigate how the nature scene categorization of line-drawings and color photographs is reflected in event-related potentials (ERPs). ERPs were recorded during a backward masking categorization task with a variable SOA. The behavioral results showed that accuracy was higher for line-drawings than photographs when SOA was 13 ms, but lower when SOA greater than 13 ms. The ERP results revealed that only for color photographs, there was slower latency of early components (posterior P1, N1 and anterior P2) for longer than shorter SOAs and for correct than incorrect trials, whereas no such variation for line-drawings. Importantly, the latency and amplitude of early components were overall greater for color photographs than line drawings, suggesting that people took longer time and needed more effort to extract information from color photographs than line-drawings. Meanwhile, although the amplitudes of later components for both types of images increased for shorter SOA and for incorrect trials, the amplitudes of later components were larger for color photographs than line-drawings, indicating that it is more difficult to evaluate internal representation and visual input from color photographs than line-drawings. These findings help to understand the role of surface gradients in rapid scene categorization and how human brain categorizes different visual stimuli.

时间:6月18日(周二)下午13:30-14:30
地点:南楼6层会议室(因所内会议,报告地点临时调整)
报告人:张晓萌同学(周雯研究组)
报告题目:Olfactory temporal resolution in humans
报告摘要:
Human audition and vision are endowed with superb temporal resolutions on the order of milliseconds and tens of milliseconds. Olfaction, by contrast, is typically thought of as a slow vestigial sense whose temporal capacity is largely restricted by respiratory cycle and mucosa thickness. Here we set out to assess human olfactory temporal resolution by sequentially delivering two different odorants with varying stimulus onset asynchronies to the same nostril or across different nostrils. We find a significantly better temporal resolution for odorants sequentially delivered to the same nostril rather than to different nostrils, despite large interindividual variance in overall olfactory temporal discrimination. Resultsare discussed in the context of olfactory functional neuroanatomy.

时间:6月25日(周二)下午13:30-14:30
地点:东楼201教室
报告人:岳源同学(张清芳研究组)
报告题目:Phonological encoding unit of Chinese speech production
报告摘要:
It’s been widely acknowledged that in speech production of alphabetical languages, the phonological encoding unit is phoneme rather than syllable. However, in Chinese, this issue still remains controversial. One opinion is that phonemes do not function during phonological encoding process while the opposite is also supported by some evidence. In our study, we replicated the experiment ran in Cantonese using PWI paradigm and got the segment facilitating effect. To tap the location of this effect, we combined the PWI paradigm with the delay naming task and found a segment inhibiting effect. This result suggests that segments may play a role during articulation process. The mechanism underlying segment facilitation and inhibition effects will be discussed in the talk.

时间:7月2日(周二)下午13:30-14:30
地点:东楼201教室
报告人:马国杰同学(李兴珊研究组)
报告题目:Word segmentation of overlapping ambiguous strings during Chinese reading
报告摘要:
We explored how Chinese readers segment a 3-character overlapping ambiguous string where the middle character could constitute a word with both the first and third character. In Experiment 1, subjects named the middle character of the ambiguous string (e.g.卫校订), which was a polyphone. They tended to pronounce the middle character as if it belonged to the higher-frequency word, regardless of its position (left or right). In Experiment 2, we embedded two sets of overlapping ambiguous strings with identical left-hand words (AB) but different right-hand words (BC or BD) in the same sentence frames. Fixation times were longer on AB when the right-hand word was a high-frequency word than a low-frequency word. In Experiment 3, each 3-character string was embedded into two sentences that only differed after the critical 3-character strings. The two sentences constrained the segmentation of the overlapping ambiguous string so that the string could be either segmented as AB-C or A-BC. The frequencies of the two words in the overlapping ambiguous string were also manipulated. If word frequency affects word segmentation, the string could be segmented as AB-C when the frequency of AB is higher than BC, and could be segmented as A-BC if the frequency of BC is higher than AB. Second-pass reading time was shorter and regression-in probability was lower in the ambiguous region when the segmentation determined by word frequency fit with the segmentation constrained by sentence context than when it did not . The results support a competition hypothesis which assumes that the characters in the perceptual span activate all of the words they can constitute, and any word can win the competition if its activation is high enough.

时间:9月24日(周二)下午13:30-14:30
地点: 东楼201教室
报告人:黄昌兵老师、张佩媛同学(黄昌兵研究组)
报告题目:What is the rationale and what weaken the effect of group decision?
                群体决策的机制是什么?什么降低了群体决策的效果?
报告摘要:
We explore the mechanism of group decision and response whether n minds are better than the best one of them. Three theoretical models are WCS (propose the confidence is communicated during the process of group decision) VOTing and RAND model, respectively. In the Three-participant group decision experiment, eight in twelve groups shared confidence and the group accepted the one who was the minority if he was sure about his choice, otherwise they would select voting as their strategy. The result showed that WCS model could interpret well the data of five groups and other models could interpret the other three. Two possible factors are the efficiency of communication and the pressure field. During the Four-participant group decision experiment, strategies differed among groups and the available result support the WCS model.

采用视觉判断任务,探究群体决策的机制并回答是否多人决策优于其中最优的人单独做决策。理论预期的三个模型分别为WCS模型(通过分享独立判断时的信心值来做出群体决策),VOT(少数服从多数)模型,rand(随机决策)模型。3人组决策实验中,8组被试通过交流选择的信心值来做判断,且均采用了“当所有人答案不一致2比1时,如果选1的人非常确定自己的答案,群体就选择他的答案,否则少数服从多数”的策略。实验结果显示理论预期的WCS(信心值分享)模型能很好的解释其中5组,但另外3组用其他模型解释更合理。2个可能的影响因素:交流的效率、人数多少所造成的“压力场”的存在。4人组决策实验中,决策策略因组而异,有效实验结果符合WCS模型理论预期。

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